Session 9- Focus Questions

Blogs are one way to support discussion that can be used in an online course. Blogs are web pages published by an individual, group, company, organization, etc. These web pages where students use a journal like system on a particular topic or event. Other may comments on their blog entires and replies can be made to these comments.

Forums are another way to support discussion that can be used in an online course. This type of forum can be a type of discussion board. Instructors can post an asssignment or discussion topic and students can create threads to discuss these topics. In addition, classmates can post comments and replies to one anothers threads. This is very common use of discussion in most online courses I have taken.

TalkShoe and other live chatting sites/toold are another way to support online discussion. This type of live podcasting allows students to discuss and talk with classmates and the instruction in real time. Evry person involved can be at a different place. This tool can be used for guest speakers, live chatting, and debates.

2. After this course I could see myself using blogs other elearning tools in many courses I teach including online, hybrid, and even face-to-face course. Blogs are one type of discussion tool I would use. One particular course I would use this in is my regular face-to-face economics courses. I choose because that is the context in which I will most likely be teaching.

3. I would prepare my students tio create by taking into the computer lab and walking through setting up an account and writing their first post. In addition, go over and give students a blog rubric. This would be a general rubric for all posts but more specific directions will be given when each post is assigned. In adiditon, I will establish rules and quidlines when it comes to online communication with other classmates. If all students have access to computers and interenet I would assign a blog assignment 2-3 times a week for homework. I would love this to be their homework and count for 10% of their grade. If students do not have computer access at home it will be used as a weekly in class assignment. They will use computers in the computer lab to complete. If this is the case students will be graded for each assignment but it will be part of their classwork grade.

4. Rubric for Blog Posts – This is a rubric thhat I would use to grade blogs in my classroom. In addition I would require all students to post a question in their blog for other classmates to answer. The questions must be soemthing that came to mind, something they want to knowe, or confusions they might have about the posted topic. Students will also be graded on responses to their classmates blogs . Each student must respond to 2 of their friends post including answering theeir question.

5. For each assignment I would view every students blog post and grade according to the rubric. I will also read the comments and have a checklist with each students name and eevry time they make a meaningful comment on another classmates blog they will get two checkpoints and full credit. If they didn’t make two posts then they will not receieve full credit fot that assignment.

6. I would prepare instructors on using blogs in their classrooms or online courses by teaching them what I learned in thsi course. In addition, I would have them create their own blog and have them posts in order to learn how to naviagte and use thew website. Lastly, I would guide them in devloping a use, rubrics, and plan implication for their own clasrooms.


Session 9- Final Project UPDATE

As stated prior I decided to do Option 2 for my final project.  Since I am currently working at Options For Youth ( OFY), and independent study charter school, I will be using their curriculum to base my online class.  I also previously stated that I will be creating an online course for a high school Economics class.  This is a one semeester (5 unit) course for seniors.  I am still unsure if this will be a 5 or 10 week course.  In the OFY program there is one packet for each unit for a total of 5 packets for Economics.  If a sttudent works hard they can finsh the course in 2.5-3 weeks.  I am still unsure how mnay weeks or sessions my online course will be.

Session 8- Final Projectt

I have decided to choose opiton 2 for my final project.  Option 2 is the following:

Develop a Course Outline

In this option you will develop an outline for an entire online (or hybrid) course. You must include:

  • Topics and objectives for each session in the class.
  • Description of the technologies used in each session of the class.
  • Explain each technology in terms of one vs. two-way communication, media richness/social presence, and why the chosen technology would be appropriate for supporting the indicated interaction.
  • Identify which of the three types of interactions (student-content, student-instructor, student-student) in an online class are supported by each technology.
  • Develop a description of the assessment/evaluation methods for each session of the class.

I have decided to outline a high school online Economics course.  I am not sure how many weeks the course will be.  I guess I will have to figure that out when I outline the course.  I am pretty sure I want to try to use Edmodo as my course CMS/LMS.  In addition, I will probably try to use other technolgies and sites such as talkshoe, youtube, etc. to faciliate the course.

I am excited for this project because I am currently working at a independent study school and I think learning how to provide online course and outlining online courses will help me.

Session 7- ADA Compliance Measures for Delivering Instruction

In order to make Power Point presentations ADA compliant I would need to do the following:

  • Add audio to power points
  • Adding alternative test to images and objects
  • Use simple table structures
  • include closed caption for any audio or visual components.
  • Color contrast in test and backgrounds
  • Use simple transitions
  • Make file easy to edit for students 
  • Keep slides concise and to the point

In order to make Podcasts ADA compliant I would need to do the following:

  • Closed Captions video version
  • Text Version with ability to change font
  • Easy to navigate 
  • Podcast Presentation at a normal pace not too fast
  • Keep on Track and focused 
  • Thoughts need to be well organized



Session 7- eLearning Page ADA Review

This assignment was a little confusing to me but I did the best I could.

I was able to access a prior class I took on blackboard and used course usability checklist to evaluate the course webpage.  Since the boxes on my checklist did not post I will mark an “X” next to each item that was present on the webpage


X    The webpages load quickly.
Site has adequate text-to-background contrast.
X     Font size/spacing is easy to read.
X      Images have appropriate.
X      Site works from all internet browsers.


X     Clear Title of Course
Home-page is digestible in 5 Seconds.
Instructor Contact Information Easy to Locate


X    Essential navigational elements are easy to find.
X     Navigation is clear and consistent throughout the site.
X       The back button always take them back to the preceding page.
Number of buttons/links is reasonable.
X       Links are consistent & easy to identify.
Site search is easy to access.


X    Content is less than 2/3 a screen-length wide.
X    Text is broken up with whitespace.
Major headings are clear and descriptive.
X    Critical content is above the fold.
X     Styles and colors are consistent.
Color choices are easy to read.
Emphasis (bold, italics) is used sparingly.
X    Main copy is concise and explanatory.
X     URLs are meaningful and user-friendly.



The comments that I have about this eLearning site for this particular course are as follows:

  • Some of the power points did not have adequate test to background contrast.  Colors needed to contrast more.
  • Even though it seems like the blackboard course home-page can not be changed by the instructor it seems too much to digest at a first glance.
  • The instructor content was easy to find if you know to open the syllabus but if you did not then you would not be able to find it.
  • One of the navigation buttons on course links have way to many links with little explanation on what they are.  This can make it confusing and overwhelming.
  • From my experience blackboard does not have a site search.
  • Teacher does not use bold words sparely and makes it difficult to understand titles and different section in a document.  An example would be the course syllabus which the first half of the first page is all bold text including other section on the course syllabus.

Session 7 – ADA Focus Questions

What are three types of disabilities that students in a course you create might have? Explain the accommodations that you would need to provide for each.

There are many different types od disabilities that students might have that are in your classes.  Here are three types of disabilities and what you can do, as a teacher, to accommodate them.

  • Visual Disability such as color blindness – Make sure to have audio Verizon of documents or posted text material, Avoid red-green-blue combinations, don’t use color to convey meaning, make sure the user can change the font, high contrast, etc.
  • Seizures- Avoid strobes such as flickering lights, fast animation, or high contrast close lines such as optical illusions.
  • Auditory- Provide text, captioning videos and presentations that have audio component.

According to the text, what is the percentage of the population that has a visual, auditory or physical limitation? How does that compare to other sources for this information. (Please list at least one other source you found.)

According to The Power of eLearning by Shirley Waterhouse 7.2% of student who are entering higher education have a visual, hearing, cognitive, or motor impairment.  According to the National Association of Education Statistics in 2007-2008 school year( 10.8 % of undergraduate students have a disability.  This percentage includes all types of disabilities and does not specify specific disabilities.  In addition, the book was written in 2005, therefore, the statistics are not of the same year.

Identify three factors other than the actual disabilities that exist in your student population that influence how an institution or a course creator is required to address ADA in an online course.

Three factors that influence how an institution or a course creator is required to address ADA in an online class are the following :

  • Law- This prohibits disability on the basis of disability and specifies certain conditions that school need to abide by to ensure that this type of discrimination does not occur.
  • Policy- Different institutions have different policies in order to make sure they comply with the ADA laws.
  • Campus SSD office- This office allows students with disability to get the resources and accommodations they need to succeed in their class.  Professors not only have make sure all students know about the SSD office but in addition comply and use the resources they have for students.  Some resources include testing accommodations, note taker in class, ASL interpreter, etc.

According to the text, what is “assistive technology”? Give some examples.

Assistive technology is a device that is made to help people with disabilities overcome problems they might encounter in functioning in the larger society.  An example would be someone with hand immobility can not use a traditional mouse some assistive technology would be a voice activated mouse or an alternative keyboard.  Another example would be a wheel chair that will help people who can not walk get around.

Identify and explain two different ways to check a webpage to ensure that it meets the needs of disabled students.

Bobby is an online tool that evaluates existing websites for disabilities access compliance. This tool was developed by The Center for Applied Special Technology.  This website allows you to invoke software that will accept a websites URL and produce a report  that rates the websites compliance for with disability access standards.

The Printing House for the Blind in Louisville, Kentucky has a database that lists 152,000 educational websites/resources that are suitable to the blind.  These sites might contain large print, sound recordings, and much more.

Identify two types of presentations used in online courses (for example, podcasts, PowerPoints, Videos, Slide Shows, etc.) and that you might use and explain how you can ensure that each is ADA compliant.

Videos are a type of presentation tools that I might you in an online course.  The following are things I would do to make videos ADA compliant:

  • Make sure they are closed-captioned
  • Provide a text version of the audio.
  • No flickering images or fast animations

Power Points are a type of presentation tools that I might you in an online course.  The following are things I would do to make Power Points ADA compliant:

  • Having high Contrast Slides
  • Avoiding Red-Green-Blue Combinations
  • Don’t use color to convey meaning
  • Use changeable fonts for the users
  • No flickering Lights or fast animation
  • No high contrast close lines
  • Have an audio version
  • Have text version

Develop a course usability checklist that is appropriate for your anticipated needs. Use the example provided in the text as a starting point and explain your modifications.


The webpages load quickly.
Site has adequate text-to-background contrast.
Font size/spacing is easy to read.
Images have appropriate.  
Site works from all internet browsers.


Clear Title of Course 
Home-page is digestible in 5 Seconds.
Instructor Contact Information Easy to Locate


Essential navigational elements are easy to find.
Navigation is clear and consistent throughout the site.
The back button always take them back to the preceding page.
Number of buttons/links is reasonable.
Company logo is linked to home-page.
Links are consistent & easy to identify.
Site search is easy to access.


Content is less than 2/3 a screen-length wide.
Text is broken up with whitespace.
Major headings are clear and descriptive.
Critical content is above the fold.
Styles and colors are consistent.
Color choices are easy to read.
Emphasis (bold, italics) is used sparingly.
Main copy is concise and explanatory.
URLs are meaningful and user-friendly.

Session 6- Assessment and Evaluation

1. Both assessment and evaluation are ways to assign a grade to a student but they are not the same thing.  Assessment is measuring student learning of a specific goal(s) or learning objective(s).  An example would be a multiplication test.  Students are being assessed if they know their multiplication facts and and can solve multiplication problems.  On the other hand, an evaluation can include an assessment but also may include of quality, establishment of value, or worth along with it.  An example, would be having students solve a multiplication problem in a multiple of different ways and creating a multiplication problem for a real life situation.  You, as the teacher are not just looking if they have met the learning goal but how they got to their solution and if they can apply it to a real life situation.  In this case, students who get a wrong answer may still receive partial if the teacher evaluates the process in which they got their answer.  In addition, the teacher might evaluate if student can apply it to a real life situation and student may receive partial or full credit. 

2. Some of the challenges with for assessing and evaluation in an learning course are the following:

  • Being 100% sure that the student enrolled for the course is taking the test
  • Knowing that the student did not buy project or essay online
  • Students can use books and notes

3. Online portfolio can be used in an online course to post responses and and questions from each chapter or section of the course.  Students and instructor can look at all posts.  Students can look back at their points and find key topics or concepts prior to a test or quiz.  

4. Two ways to measure student participation in an online class is discussion boards and online portfolios.

 Discussion boards posts and responses can be included into students grade.  Students will have to respond to questions or the chapter by creating a discussion thread and they will have to respond to at least 3 of their class mates posts.  Students will get credit if they give logical and thought out posts and responses.  This will ensure students are participating and reading their text.  

Online portfolios can be used for student posts like our blogs.  The teacher can view students post on course topics and/or questions.  Students and instructor can view their progress and online portfolio throughout the course.

5. Advantages: of Peer Evaluations:

  • Tries to combat people not doing work in a group project.
  • May motivate students to participate 

Disadvantages of Peer Evaluations:

  • Students might object to a portion of their grade to be determined by their peers.

6. A group project that can be assigned to a group e learning course is making a power point about a historical period.  Students will be broken up into groups and each group will have to email the professor telling the instructor who is doing what.  Each person will have to do 3-4 slides on their sections.  Each person will concentrate on a particle sub-top such as food,  music, clothing, historical events,  etc.  To ensure that each student does his part they will need to send a rough draft portion of the slideshow to the professor individually and then the group will e-mail their completed finished product to the instructor.  Each student will also have to write a 1-2 page essay on their subtopic.  Students will also have to complete a peer review survey.  

7. My Test is on Quiz Star and my Quiz code is the following :  QI_EGAHAC. 

It is for an Economics Chapter 1 Test

8. The following is a rubric I would use for the essay portion of my Economics Chapter 1 Test.

 I created it on RubiStar and the rubric ID# is 2376749        

New Media

Technology is changing everyday and with this new technology comes new ways to incorporate it into the classroom.  In today’s world social media and other “new media” is used inside the classroom to keep students engaged and to facilitate learning.  As a high school teacher their are two “new media” tools I might consider using to move my classroom more into elearning.  These two tools would be twitter and and you tube.


New Media Tool: Remind 101


Features:  Remind 101 is a text message service that allows teachers to send text messages to students and parents.  This type of media a one-way interaction of asynchronous communication.  This tool is limited to text only but can be used in a variety of ways.  Teachers can remind students of test, quizzes, assign an extra credit assignment, give directions, remind to watch videos or other tasks.  This type of media would only facilitate CMS/LMS, hybrid course, or face-to face course but allows teachers to give announcement to all students.

Critique: This “new media ” would not be able to support an elearning activity by itself but it can remind student to do these activities through other means.  This tool would not replace CMS/LMS but it can be used as course announcements or whole class e-mails.


New Media Tool: Youtube


Features:  This tool can be used to facilitate learning by watching videos that are already posted or by creating videos for that particular course.  This type of media a one-way interaction of asynchronous communication.  There are many ways in which one can use this tool.   Professors can post videos of class lectures or annotated power point presentations to act as a class lecture in an online course.  Professors can also link videos to their CMS/LMS that are already made that will help facilitate and expand the topic being taught.  In addition, professors can ask students to create their own video as a type of assessment and post the link the CMS/LMS discussion board, blog, or by giving the link through an e-mail to the professor.

Critique: This “new media ” would not be able to support an elearning activity could not used by itself as a CMS/LMS but it can be used to facilitate elearning. It is also easy for instructors to link a youtube video on their CMS/LMS site.



An assignment that I would assign in my classroom using elearning tools would be create a response to a chapter one The Hunger Games.  I could use Remind 101 to tell students about the assignment and its requirements but they can not use this tool to create their response.  If this type of text message stsyem allowed for students to respond back then they could complete the assignment but they can not.  If I were to do the same thing using youtube students could create a youtube video response to the first chapter of The Hunger Games.


Chapter 5 and 6 Focus Questions

1. Textual Information-  Textual Information consists mostly of text.   In elearning textual information can be presented in a lumber of different ways.  One such way is through announcements.  Most LMS/CMS’s have a place for the instructor to post announcements.  These announcements consist of text to get information to all students.  Announcements are effective when professors have assignment changes, questions to address to the whole class, important updates, etc.  A second way textual information is effective in elearning is through documents.  Many professors will attach a word document to their LMS/CMS page when wanting to address a large amount of textual information.  Examples of documents would include syllabi, course schedule, assignment requirements, etc.

Presentation Graphics Slide Show- Presentation Graphics and Slideshows can consists of text, graphs, pictures, videos, etc. These can be viewed in a number of different ways such as printed form, through a computer monitor, or projector.  For an elearning course instructors might attach a link to a powerpoint presentation.  This is used as a type of lecture for an elearning course.  Students can view images, read text, watch videos, etc. 

Spreadsheets and Databases- Spreadsheets and Databases provide a way to look at and present data.  An instructor might use a Spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel as a gradebook.  He/She might post this so students can view their grades and calculate what they need to get on an exam to achieve a desired grade in the course.

Multimedia objects- Multimedia Objects in the elearning environment include videos, pictures, sound or all three.  A few examples are if an instructor posts a video, pictures, or maybe in a podcast on their LMS/CMS system.  One example is how Professor Newberry has included a podcast of some of the readings on Blackboard.  In addition, to the podcast he included the same thing in a textual document.  Other online courses I have taken I watched videos that are linked to blackboard site.


2. Our textbook explains a number of different ways in which to organize text documents.  These include the following:

Chunking information

Use white space, bulleted list, and other text attributes

Use URL links appropriately

Use text links within documents

Address user viewing preferences

Require Standard File Format

I believe that using white space, bulleted lists, and other text attributes is one of the most guidelines when it comes to organizing text documents.  The way in which white space bulleted space, and other text attributes are used helps students organize their thoughts, makes text easier to read, and increases the ability for students to process the information.   If a test document is one large paragraph the document then seems harder to read and thoughts can become confusing.

Other text attributes that can be used to help the reader is fonts, italics, and bold text.  Titles and Subtitles should be given a different format so that is draws the reader’s attention and lets the reader know the following text is different than the previous text.

The following is an example of a course syllabi that uses white space, lists, and other attributes in an organized manner.



Parents and students: please review this syllabus carefully. It contains important information about course grades and behavior expectations. Thank you!


These are the behaviors that students are expected to exhibit in class:

  • Have class materials ready to use

  • Follow instructions for turning in assignments

  • Listen carefully to directions and follow them

  • No snacks– water in clear containers only

  • Be ready to think–participate–learn!


Student who are not ready when the bell rings are counted tardy, as well as those who arrive late. Students who have to leave the room because they did not come to class prepared will also earn a tardy. Those arriving late are asked to come into class quietly and sit in the first available desk so as not to interrupt class activities. Tardies are counted on a school-wide basis, and detention is assigned from the office.

Hall Passes: Students must receive my permission to leave during class time. A hall pass must be used.A conference will result if students abuse the hall pass privilege, and the privilege may be revoked.

Citizenship Grades: Students will receive numerical grades which reflect their behavior in the classroom. These citizenship grades will be based on the following list of behavior expectations (these are examples only, as a complete list is not possible for each category):

1) Students are expected to take responsibility for learning. BE PREPARED!

2) Students are expected to respect the rights of others. BE RESPECTFUL!

3) Students are expected to treat property with respect. YOU BREAK IT, YOU BUY IT!

4) Students are expected to act in a safe and healthy way. KEEP YOUR HANDS TO YOURSELF!

5) Students are expected to follow the rules in the Parent/Student Handbook in this classroom.

Consequences will be applied according to the school district’s discipline policies and procedures for those students who will not be respectful of the behavior expectations. Everyone starts out with a “4” in citizenship. It is up to you to keep that “4” by following these expectations.


Grades are based on total points accumulated on quizzes, tests, homework, class assignments, class participation, and projects for the semester. Grades are calculated at the end of the third week, at midterm (fifth week), at the end of the seventh week and at the quarter (ninth week). ALL students receive progress reports at these times.


1) Students must use clean whole sheets of paper;

2) The student’s name, date and assignment must appear in the upper right corner of the paper;

3) Students must use dark inks or dark pencil, or keyboard their assignment neatly;

4) All corrections should be neatly made;

5) Papers with too many mechanical errors will be returned to the student for correction before grading.

Extra credit: Students may earn extra credit by doing exceptionally well on class work or by correctly answering specific questions embedded in assignments and quizzes, as determined by the teacher. No extra credit is given on assignments turned in late. Special extra credit assignments are not available. Students should earn their grades based on the regular course work.

Late work: Students are expected to turn their class work in on the due date. Work turned in after the due date will be marked down 50% for the first day late–the assignment is worth 0 points after that day. Students are always free to discuss with me the reason their class work is late; if they do this when the assignment was originally due, then the late penalty may not be applied. WARNING: I grade late papers as I have time. It may be several days or even weeks before a student’s grade is changed after late work is turned in. This may affect eligibility for extracurricular activities. No late work is accepted the last week of the quarter.

Makeup work: Students have one school day for each day absent to turn in all makeup work (unless arrangements are made with the instructor for more time). Not all class activities can be made up, as they require direct participation by the student.

Semester Grades and Evaluations: Nine weeks and semester grades are calculated as percentages using a scale of 90% = A, 80% = B, 70% = C, 60%= D, <60% = F.

3. Synchronous communication is direct where every personal involved in the communication are present at the same time. This includes, but is not limited to, a telephone conversation, a  board meeting, a chat room event and instant messaging.

Asynchronous communication does not require everyone in the communication to be present at the same time. Examples would include the following: e-mail, discussion boards, blogging, and text messaging over cell phones.

I think with online learning most communication is asynchronous because most people who are taking these course can not not attend a class at a certain time or place.  On the other hand, I have had online courses that require students to come into one or two class sessions at CSUSB and that would entail synchronous communication.   It would be possible to say that our Talkshow session was synchronous communication even though it was available for others to listen to later.  I believe it is considered Synchronous communication because those who did not attend the live session were unable to communicate their thoughts, feeling, and questions.

When choosing between synchronous communication and asynchronous communication one must consider the audience, the availability of the participants, and the intention and goal of the communication session.

4.  The following are tools that blackboard enables synchronous communication:

  • Mail, Discussions

  • Announcements

  • Learning Modules

  • Assessments

  • Assignments

  • Course Documents

  • E-mails

5. The following are tools that blackboard enables asynchronous communication:

  • Chats

  • Whiteboards

6.  If I was teaching an elearning course I would use discussion boards to facilitate conversation student-teacher interactions and student-student interactions.

If I were teaching elearning English 9 course where they were reading a novel such as The hunger Games I would use the discussion board to facilitate learning.  For each chapter the student reads they would need to post a discussion thread responding, critiquing, and answering assigned questions for that particular chapter.   In addition, they will need to read others threads and respond to them just like we do with our blogs in this course.  This type of assignment would use asynchronous communication to facilitate communication.

In order to ensure this assignment is successful. I, as the teacher, will read and grade all threads and student responses.  I would make sure students are discussing original ideas and   giving genuine responses to their classmates.

Dr. Monighan- Session 3

I was not able to attend the live Talkshoe with Dr. Monighan because I was in class that evening. I was able to listen to the podcast the next which was wonderful.

I think having a free service like Talkshoe is a beneficial tool for educators . I have used Skype for a pervious class but not to the extent of bringing in a guest speaker. Using Talkshoe is a great tool to use in the classroom I would have never of though of using it. It would be great to cooperate these as a way to bring in guests in the classroom or talk to someone with real life experience.

Dr. Monighan was a wonderful guest speaker who really put things in a different perspective. In the pervious post I discussed Blackboard from a students standpoint. Dr. Monighan, however, gave the perspective and the tools for teachers as well as a university standpoint. 

One of the things that Dr. Monighan discussed if how online learning has boosted enrollment.  This makes sense because more people are able to get a degree even if they have kids, work a full time job, and other life situations.  As an educator, I believe that everyone deserves the right of educations and having elearning available allows more people more options.

Another point Dr. Monighan academic honesty and student engagement.  Throughout my college career I have heard stories about how students do an online course for someone else.  I think professors who might now be trained or aware enough may miss some of the clues of academic dishonesty.  I think all professors who teach elearning courses need to learn and implement things within their course to ensure testing and work is done by the student.   Dr. Monighan gave us the example of using drafts of projects instead of finished projects that students can purchase online are requested by the professor. Dr. Monighan also discussed how professors need to know their students to ensure academic honesty.   

I am so glad that Dr. Monighan was able to be a guest speaker for our course and share his experience and expertise.